By Kathy Jones and Christina Shaffer, Charles Schwab

As the Federal Reserve transitions from merely talking about tapering its bond holdings to actually tapering, investors may be left wondering what it might mean for the markets and their portfolios. Here’s a quick review of the Fed’s policies, what happened the last time the Fed tapered, and whether it will be different this time.

How we got here

In March 2020, the Federal Reserve was staring down the runway of an unprecedented pandemic with dire economic implications. As a result, the Fed quickly cut the federal funds rate to the range of zero to 0.25% from 1.5% to 1.75% and started purchasing large amounts of Treasuries and agency mortgage-backed securities (MBS) to provide additional stimulus to the economy above and beyond the rate cuts. These large-scale asset purchases are what is commonly referred to as quantitative easing (QE). The goals of quantitative easing are to:

  • Support the smooth functioning of the financial markets

  • Provide additional stimulus to the economy by lowering borrowing costs

  • Put downward pressure on long-term yields to boost investment

  • Support the MBS and commercial mortgage-backed securities (CMBS) markets through lowering interest rates for residential and commercial mortgages.

Fast forward through the shortest recession on record and the economy is rebounding strongly. The Fed’s economic forecasts for the end of 2021 show economic growth rising at a 7.0% pace, core inflation at 3.0%, and an unemployment rate of 4.5%.

As the economic picture improves, it is not surprising that the Fed would start talking about scaling back its stimulus. Although it’s waiting for “substantial further progress” towards its dual mandate of an average inflation target of 2% and full employment, it looks like those benchmarks may be reached sooner rather than later, given its forecasts for 2021.

What is tapering?

Tapering is a term used to describe the process of gradually stopping asset purchases when there is no predefined end date or amount. Tapering does not involve the outright sale of Treasuries or agency MBS by the Fed — it only means reducing purchases to zero.

The Fed likes to signal its intentions around tapering its QE program well in advance to minimize the impact on the markets.  Although in the past, the prospect of tapering has unsettled markets, we expect it to be more orderly this time around, as the markets have been through the experience before. Nonetheless, it’s important for investors to understand the process.

Now and then: The Fed’s balance sheet

The Federal Reserve initially implemented what some coined as “unlimited QE” in March 2020 before subsequently capping its monthly purchases at $80 billion and $40 billion for Treasuries and agency MBS, respectively. Ringing in around $7.7 trillion, the Fed’s current holdings of securities quickly blew past the prior peak seen after the 2007-2009 Great Recession. But that’s not the full story.

The composition of assets has shifted slightly, with the Fed holding a higher proportion of Treasuries compared to MBS this time around. Treasuries now comprise about 69% of the Fed’s holdings compared to 59% last time, and MBS holdings stand at 31% versus 42%.

Another difference is that the bulk of the Fed’s holdings of Treasuries have shorter maturities, resulting in a weighted average maturity of 7.5 years versus 10.2 years previously.

How long will tapering take?

Tapering is likely to be very gradual — in 2014 when the Federal Reserve tapered for the first time, it did so by decreasing monthly purchases by $5 billion per month for Treasuries and MBS each. The full tapering process took 10 months to complete. This time there has been some indication from Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC) members that they would like to move more quickly, as the economy has bounced back so fast. As a result, we forecasted two scenarios — tapering sooner and tapering later.

In both scenarios, the balance sheet will likely stand around $8.5 trillion once tapering is complete. If the Fed starts tapering in November at $10 billion per month for Treasuries and $5 billion per month for MBS, tapering would be completed in about seven months, or by May 2022.

On the other hand, if the Fed holds off until 2022 to start tapering by the same amount, it would be completed by July 2022. Although unlikely, the Fed does have flexibility to speed up or slow down the tapering process. Once completed, income received from the holdings will continue to be reinvested, growing the balance sheet at a much slower rate.

Given the expressed preference by some FOMC members to complete tapering sooner rather than later and the Fed’s forecast for the economy, we expect the Fed to announce it will begin tapering this fall, by slowing the pace of Treasury purchases by $10 billion per month and MBS by $5 billion per month. At that pace, tapering should take roughly seven months.

What does tapering mean for the markets?

In theory, tapering should lead to higher interest rates. By tapering its bond purchases, the Fed is increasing the supply that needs to be absorbed by the market and signaling that policy is becoming less accommodative. In practice, that hasn’t always been the result. We only have one previous example of tapering to look at, but the results were counterintuitive.

1. Treasury yields

Tapering doesn’t necessarily mean yields will spike higher. In the previous period of tapering, yields rose prior to the onset of tapering in 2013 but then fell during the implementation period. The pattern was similar to earlier periods when the Fed started and stopped QE. Yields rose during periods of QE and fell when QE ended.

We believe this pattern reflects the power of the Fed’s signaling — it wasn’t necessarily the removal of the Fed as a buyer of Treasuries that caused yields to decline, but the signaling that did. Markets viewed ending QE and/or tapering as the start of tighter policy which would likely result in rate hikes down the road, slower growth, and less inflation. Consequently, yields fell, and the yield curve flattened.

It could always be different this time since yields for intermediate to long-term treasuries are already very low. However, it’s worth noting that the market reaction will depend more on the outlook for economic growth and inflation than on the level of treasury supply.

2. The TIPS market

The Fed has arguably had the most outsized impact on the Treasury Inflation Protected Securities (TIPS) market given the characteristically low level of supply in that market. The TIPS market is the only market where the Fed’s purchases decreased the overall supply of securities since initiating QE. Currently, the Fed holds 22% of the TIPS market.

In 2014 when the Fed started tapering MBS purchases, MBS spreads narrowed, and yields declined. The decline in yields and narrowing of spreads in the MBS market resulted from the general improving of the housing market more so than the Fed tapering QE. Although MBS spreads could rise slightly this time around, it is likely that the tapering of MBS purchases will have a minor impact on the MBS market.

Is this time different?

Yes and no. If yields remain very low, the start of tapering may send them higher, reversing the pattern of the last round of tapering. It is also worth noting that we expect this round of tapering to be completed faster than the previous round of tapering in 2014.

However, since the markets and the Fed have experience with the process, we don’t necessarily expect a jump in Treasury yields or Treasury volatility. The key to the market’s reaction is based on how strong the economy looks at the time. Tapering is as much about signaling as it is about the implementation, and tapering signals that the Fed will have the flexibility to hike rates sooner rather than later.

What to consider now

If intermediate to long-term yields rise in anticipation of the Fed reducing its asset purchases, we suggest investors use that as an opportunity to increase the average duration in their portfolios. We have been suggesting keeping average duration low over the past year and would use a moderate rise in yields to add some longer maturity bonds to generate more income over time. A bond ladder strategy still makes sense to us in this environment, given the steepness of the yield curve.

Do not be surprised if there is an uptick in volatility for the riskier segments of the bond market. Over the past year, QE has provided an incentive for investors to take on more risk, and as asset purchases come to an end, it could spook the riskier segments of the market.


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Lawton Retirement Plan Consultants, LLC (LRPC) is a Milwaukee, Wisconsin-based independent, objective Registered Investment Adviser (RIA) providing investment advisory, fiduciary compliance, employee education, provider management and plan design services to employer retirement plan sponsors. The firm specializes in sustainable investment strategies for retirement plans that incorporate Socially Responsible Investment (SRI) factors and Environmental, Social and Governance (ESG) elements. LRPC currently has contracts in place to provide consulting services on more than a half billion dollars in plan assets. For more information, please contact Robert C. Lawton at (414) 828-4015 or bob@lawtonrpc.com or visit the firm’s website at https://www.lawtonrpc.com. Lawton Retirement Plan Consultants, LLC is a Wisconsin Registered Investment Adviser.

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This information was developed as a general guide to educate plan sponsors and is not intended as authoritative guidance, tax, legal or investment advice. Each plan has unique requirements and you should consult your attorney or tax adviser for guidance on your specific situation. In no way does Lawton Retirement Plan Consultants, LLC assure that, by using the information provided, a plan sponsor will be in compliance with ERISA regulations. Investors should carefully consider investment objectives, risks, charges, and expenses. The statements in this publication are the opinions and beliefs of the commentator expressed when the commentary was made and are not intended to represent that person’s opinions and beliefs at any other time. The commentary does not necessarily reflect the opinion of Lawton Retirement Plan Consultants, LLC and should not be construed as recommendations or investment advice. Lawton Retirement Plan Consultants, LLC offers no tax, legal or accounting advice and any advice contained herein is not specific to any individual, entity or retirement plan, but rather general in nature and, therefore, should not be relied upon for specific investment situations. Lawton Retirement Plan Consultants, LLC is a Wisconsin Registered Investment Adviser and accepts clients outside of Wisconsin based upon applicable state registration regulations and the “de minimus” exception.

Additional Important Disclosures

The information provided here is for general informational purposes only and should not be considered an individualized recommendation or personalized investment advice. The investment strategies mentioned here may not be suitable for everyone. Each investor needs to review an investment strategy for his or her own particular situation before making any investment decision. All expressions of opinion are subject to change without notice in reaction to shifting market or economic conditions. Data contained herein from third party providers is obtained from what are considered reliable sources. However, its accuracy, completeness or reliability cannot be guaranteed. Supporting documentation for any claims or statistical information is available upon request. Past performance is no guarantee of future results and the opinions presented cannot be viewed as an indicator of future performance.Indexes are unmanaged, do not incur management fees, costs and expenses and cannot be invested in directly. Forecasts contained herein are for illustrative purposes only, may be based upon proprietary research and are developed through analysis of historical public data. Investing involves risk, including loss of principal. Fixed income securities are subject to increased loss of principal during periods of rising interest rates. Fixed-income investments are subject to various other risks including changes in credit quality, market valuations, liquidity, prepayments, early redemption, corporate events, tax ramifications and other factors. Lower-rated securities are subject to greater credit risk, default risk, and liquidity risk. Treasury Inflation Protected Securities (TIPS) are inflation-linked securities issued by the U.S. government whose principal value is adjusted periodically in accordance with the rise and fall in the inflation rate. Thus, the dividend amount payable is also impacted by variations in the inflation rate, as it is based upon the principal value of the bond. It may fluctuate up or down. Repayment at maturity is guaranteed by the U.S. government and may be adjusted for inflation to become the greater of the original face amount at issuance or that face amount plus an adjustment for inflation. A bond ladder, depending on the types and amount of securities within the ladder, may not ensure adequate diversification of your investment portfolio. This potential lack of diversification may result in heightened volatility of the value of your portfolio. You must perform your own evaluation of whether a bond ladder and the securities held within it are consistent with your investment objective, risk tolerance and financial circumstances.